Some Comments on Iris Chang'sThe Rape of Nanking
The Forgotten Holocauset of World War II

Dr.Higashinakano Osamichi
Proffessor of History of Thought
Asia University Zip 180-8629

1. On December 8, all the citizens of the capital were ordered to evacuate to the safty zone.  Almost all of them were talking refugee there.  outside of the safty zone, it was no man's land.  If there had been corpses, then they should have been those of soldiers.

2. After the fall of the capital, the most prominent prominent was that of food. This is because the Chinese soldiers who had been hiding in the safety zone presentted themselves as civilians, thus resulting in the drastic increase of population from 200,000 to 250,000.

3. Ms. Chang asserts,  the tribunal concluded that approximately 260,000 poople were killed during the Nanking massacre (p.101f) . But this contradicts to the fact that   [f] or example, $2,540 was used to complete the necessary burial enterprises undertaken by the Red Swastika Society, which covered over 40,000 bodies otherwise uncared for 
(Report of the Nanking International Relief Committee, p.19, Summer 1939).
(At the time when Chinese polices were paid 3-5 yen a month, the Japanese army paid the Red Swastika Society 30 sen (0.30 yen) per body. The International Committee also paid total of $2,450 for the burial. Because the burial was a profiting business, there was a counterfeit report in the number of the buried bodies for aproximately three times more than the actual number).

4. Since there is not a single murder case involvong no corpses, thus so-called 'massacre' involving 300,000 victims would not have taken place.

5. The approx. 40,000 bodies the Red Swastika Society buried were those of dead soldiers. On this, BATES writes :  Evidences from burials indicate that close to forty thousand unarmed persons were killed within and near the walls of Nanking, of whom some 30 per cent had never been soldiers ( Bates, memorandum, dated 25 Jan., 1938, in : Timperley,The Japanese Terror in China, 1938, p.51) .
However, this theory had never been taken ( four times ) into the official documents of China Republic.

6. The title of the bookThe Rape of Nanking results from the author's expansive delusion and is quite misleading.
① North China Daily News reported as follows : so far more than, 10000 people have been outraged. All the people of the fair sex including young girls of eleven and fifty-three year old women had been dishonored. Those who had been raped number roughly from 8000 to 20000.
However, this article was deleted from ② China Year Book 1939.
--- Here, both ① and ② were the publications of North China Daily News & Herald Co. The 20000 rape theory of ① was Omomitted as a false reportin ②.

7. Numbers of rape cases mentioned in the book are either not recorded in an official record such asDocuments of the Nanking Safety Zone, or very dubious of its authenticity.

8. British Consulate Mr. Jeffery accused the Japanese army for looting only.  Military lawness continues due to a lack of centralized control. Majority of cases are of ransacking.  ( 29 Jan., 1938,Records of the Department of State Relating to Political Relations Between China and Japan, rol 49 ) 

9. There is not a single accusation of the 'massacre in Nanking' in the Statement to friendly nations, given by Chiang Kei-Shek on July, 7, 1938, the first anniversary of China incident, nor in the various English journals issued in Shanghai.

10. Although the title of the book suggestsThe forgotten holocaust of World War II, the Nanking incident is not forgotten. The Japanese school textbooks authorized by the Ministry of Education contain the description of the massacre of Nanking. There is also a section inKodansha Encyclopedia of Japan, vols 9. 1983.

11. It is not accurate to argue the Nanking incident and the Holocaust in the samebreath as Chang does inThe Rape of Nanking. Holocaust denotes a mass slaughter, quite different from war crimes in nature. Moreover, the holocaust carried out systematically and intentionally by the Nazis aimed the extermination of the Jews, the like of which we never see in the history.
In contrast to the genocide by the Nazis, the point at issue regarding the Nanking incident is at the level of war crimes allegedly commited during the China incident, including the executing of prisoners against international law, the killing of civilians, rape and looting.

12. She has not read any primary materials by herself. She blindly accepts, in a wholesale way, the work by David BERGAMINI ,Japan's Imperial conspiracy :How Emperor Hirohito led Japan into war against the West ( 1971 ), which is doubted for its credibility by historians both in the West and Japan ( for example, see Prof. YOSHII Hiroshi's work). BERGAMINI writes,  [w]ar with China had become a necessary part of the national program which he had inherited from his gradfather and great-grandfather.....The capture of Nanking was planned in the innermost recesses of the Imperial Palace in Tokyo to bring about Chiang's ouster . However, no evidence has yet been produced by Japanese scholars who work extensively in this area, that the Emperor or the Japanese government ever gave the Imperial Army an order to murder or rape in Nanking.

13. Chang's The Rape of Nanking -- the forgotten holocaust of World War II is replete with errors in the light of basichistorical facts. The followings are the mistakes:
(1) On page 62, she stated that Malco Pole visited Nanking and saw Drum Tower. However, according toThe Travels of Malco Pole, he ( 1254 - 1324 ) did not take a trip to Nanking. It was in 1382 that the drum tolling the hour was set on Drum Tower located in the heart of Nanking as we know it today.
(2) On p.66, she argues that Sun Yat Sen died in November. But the truth is that he died on March 12 in 1925.
(3) On p. 182, she argues that even the famous Nanking Wall disappeared, due to China's industrialization and modernization, with only a few gates remaining as tourist attractions. But in reality, at least one fourth of the Wall remains.
(4) On p. 49, she contends that Japanese soldiers believed that raping virgins could make them more powerful in battles.
However, there is no such superstition in Japan.
(5) On p. 68, she alludes to say that General Tang, commander for the Nanking defense corps, was forced to defend the capital by Chiang, but it was Tang that persisted in defending Nanking of his own accord.
(6) On p. 38, she mentions that as the Japanese troops zeroed in on Nanking, General Matsui feverishly ill - another flare-up of his chronic tuberculosis. But then, we cannot confirm such a fact in the published staff diary kept by General Matsui. He was in fine shape.
(7) On p. 70, it is written that on December 8, Chiang Kei-Shek fled Nanking, but here again the truth is that he attempted to take flight on December 7.
(8) On p.70, she comes out with the assertion that the city of Nanking fell on the evening of December 12, while the photograph showing the fall of the city in her book is dated December 13. In fact, the latter description is correct.
(9) On page 46, she asserts that the streets of the fallen capital were turned into  rivers of blood , as Japanese soldiers poured into Nanking. But there is no record testifying to the truth of such a fact.


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